Water Treaty Between Mexico and the United States: Present Situation and Future Potential
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Artificial cranial modification head-shaping was scored in 21 skulls one more skull could not provide any information on whether or not it sported any modification. In four skulls the variant could not be determined. Lastly, one upper right canine from the Sak Tat shrine showed a distinct sulcus from artificial filing.
Appearance and living conditions. Female stature estimates range between Regarding robusticity, muscular insertions and origins appear above average in the limb bones of individuals of both sexes, which indicates a demanding physical regime and intense mobility. In fact, the pilastric indexes, which measure the cross-sectional properties of mid-shaft femurs, average in males and They are equal to, or more marked than, the ones calculated for pre-Hispanic times Tiesler, Their meric indexes average 80 platimericwhich has been identified by some authors with increased mobility, coupled with undernutrition Capasso et al.
However, given that robusticity is a variable employed for sexing the long bones, based on Wrobel et al. General patterns of pathological conditions were assessed through the analysis of several indicators of metabolic, carential, localized or systemic infectious conditions and traumas. Combined indicators show that 8 out of 14 It must be noted that vitamin D deficiency should also be detected in long bones, and none of these segments presented such manifestations.
However, given the secondary nature of these deposits, we lack analytical methods to assign the long bones to the skull of each individual, and it is also likely that the long bones belonging to the eight skulls with porotic hyperostosis do not form part of our sample. We add that cribra orbitalia, which appears as a trabecularization of the orbital roof, was diagnosed only in 2 out of 15 skulls Periostal reactions, which were recorded in the long bones of the lower extremities, were recorded in six specimens out of 16 Such reactions were not localized in small areas of the long bones, which may support the idea that they had been caused by systemic ailments instead of local traumatic injuries.
Notwithstanding, the possibility must be entertained that a diagnostic marker of such conditions is represented by the skeletal distribution of the pathological evidence like bilaterality, extension to contiguous bony segments, distribution in the upper vs. Skeletal markers of violence and trauma inflicted in life have a different motivation and signature from that of posthumous manipulation.
At the Sak Tat shrine, one skull presented a series of thin cut-marks on the frontal bone figure 7. They crossed the upper frontal bone transversally some 10 to 25 mm. They were likely produced with a metal tool, considering the clean, narrow, v-shaped profiles of the marks, which can easily be appreciated even without a microscope and which differ from the more rounded grooves produced by chert or obsidian tools Tiesler and Oliva, The morphology and chromatic appearance indicate that they had been executed in ancient times and were not the result of recent accidental taphonomic interventions.
Rather, they indicate a repetitive slicing action in contrast with an impact, which could have stemmed from scalping. While these cut-marks were effected after the individual had already perished, others stem from the time surrounding death.
One violent chop of one adult mandible removed the left posterior angle gonion from the vertical ramus figure 8. Such an impact was likely carried out with a machete, which has been a commonly used working and defensive tool since colonial times. Unfortunately, no skeletal segments remain that allow assessment of the impact's directionality. One right tibia at the shrine exhibits a fracture also apparently caused by a machete blow, or perhaps self-inflicted.
One other skull from Sak Tat exhibited an unhealed blunt force trauma, which fractured the cranial vault. The lack of any defined mark of impact suggests that the action was not perpetrated with any weapon, and we cautiously believe that the person might have fallen from a high altitude, thereby crushing the head on the ground figure 9.
Lastly, a healed midshaft fracture of an adult femur also received our attention in the Sak Tat series figure The diaphysis had remained almost straight during the healing process, which suggests that the person had received some sort of medical attention in the form of stabilization and splinting of the leg, a measure more common in post-contact times than before the conquest. Nearly all of the remains are of a secondary nature with the exception of two mummified bodies that had been laid down in a stone cleft high above the ground which was difficult to access.
As for the remainder, it follows that skeletal segments must have been re-deposited on the ground of the shelter after exhumation or have been introduced from far-off places of primary interment.
Also among the pre-Hispanic Maya, skulls and long bones appear to have been the preferred segments to be intentionally removed from their primary deposition space to undergo protracted mortuary treatments Fitzsimmons, ; Tiesler, From a collective perspective, age estimations indicate the prevalence of adult individuals, equally represented by males and females, at least in the overall count.
The adult age categories more frequently encountered are between 30 and 50 years of age, as suggested from the skull, and slightly older when age is estimated from the pelvis. Conversely, no infants or juvenile remains were counted among the segments that were systematically analyzed. Such an age distribution does not reflect a "normal" demographic profile and therefore is not representative of the population's mortality pattern Paine and Boldsen, ; Tiesler et al.
Neither does the observed age profile stem from mortal epidemic cycles Paine and Boldsen,whose age distribution tends to be balanced between all the age classes. Given the secondary nature of the bony assemblages, the skewed distribution can be considered in all likelihood as the product of a culturally introduced bias.
In fact, skeletal remains did not selectively preserve in relation to their own intrinsic robustness and strength; they were deposited in accordance with ritual and cultural beliefs. According to local tradition, the individuals who could stand before the gods in the sacred places are considered the "caretakers of the gods"; similarly, the remains that were intentionally redistributed within the sacred shrines can correspond to ritual beliefs linked to the cult of the ancestors Fitzsimmons, ; Weiss-Krejci, It seems evident that children, juveniles and subadults did not meet the necessary requirement to achieve such status in the community.
The fact that few elderly individuals were encountered could be linked to a general good preservation of the skeletal remains, in particular the skulls.
On the other hand, with regard to the pelvis, at least two individuals were 50 years of age or older. It must be stressed that normal macroscopic indicators of age at death provide reliable estimates until age 40; after that age, population variability becomes a limiting factor for an accurate estimate of the demographic profile. It formed part of the Maya cultural repertoire for at least three millennia. Tiesler notes that during the Classic Period, intentional modification of the skull generated a large array of shapes and styles, obtained in compression cradleboards or directly shaped between head boards, adjusted to the skull of the infant.
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After the onset of the second millennium A. These were achieved by placing the baby in compression cradleboards. Eventually, the Spanish conquest would force the abandonment of such practices, initially in the urban population and then, slowly, also in the rural hinterlands Tiesler and Zabala, Among the Lacandon Maya, the isolation from European oppression appears to have led to the persistence of this practice until recent times Palka, Even during the late 19th century, Maudslay notes flattened foreheads among the elderly Lacandon and points out that the custom of head modeling was slowly being abandoned.
The estimated stature determined from the length of the long bones seems to be shorter in males in comparison with their pre-Hispanic counterparts. Although no inter-site differences are reported the authors gathered all the specimens togetherTiesler demonstrates a decrease in stature towards the Postclassic, especially in females. Although we cannot rule out genetic factors behind such reduced values, it seems plausible to infer that stressful conditions undernutrition combined with pathological loads may have come to limit the growth potentials in this population.
As regards porotic hyperostosis and cribra orbitalia, they are frequently detected in archaeological specimens; they are more often evident in an active state in subadults rather than in adults Ortner, ; Stuart-Macadam, ; Schultz, Although both conditions have been associated in the literature with anemic conditions El-Najjar et al. Neither of the two directly expresses any specific pathological conditions a disease Grauer,but rather identifies morphological features with a complex origin Schultz, In order to diagnose reliably the specific etiology of such skeletal manifestations, Schultz recommends histomorphological inspection of the pathological manifestation.
Although we are aware that such a step is important for a correct diagnosis, the data collection in the field at the sacred shrines has not included sampling for further analyses thus far, which limits proper understanding of the conditions that generated the porotic manifestations.
By itself, the high frequency of porotic lesions in the cranial vault encountered in this study In fact, it is much higher than the frequencies recorded respectively in other, large Maya series. Similarly, very few cases were reported at Caracol and at Santa Rita Corozal Chase, and no porotic hyperostosis was detected at Tayasal Chase, In a similar fashion, Saul and Saul described only two cases of porosity in the cranial vault out of 49 skulls analyzed at Cuello.
Periostal reactions are postcranial conditions that are difficult to interpret in secondary remains. The fact that Lastly, the presence of traumatic injuries and manifestations of pre- and perimortem cultural intervention indicate hazardous living conditions Cucina and Tiesler, One frontal bone shows posthumous processing, while one mandible presented evidence of intentional perimortem violence.
In both cases, we identified sharp metal objects as instruments, thereby suggesting a post-contact date. Unfortunately, the isolated nature of the segments hampers any broader understanding of the direction of the impacts or the circumstances that led to them. Certainly, the total absence of any evidence of remodeling and healing in the mandible indicates that death occurred immediately, or within a very short time after the impact.
Other healed or unhealed lesions, like one perimortem cranial blunt force trauma and a medically stabilized midshaft fracture of an adult femur, were more likely the product of accidents and in the latter case suggest medical attention of some sort. Conclusions The human skeletal assemblages from the sacred shelters' surface, with some few exceptions, belong to secondary interments, which we have argued accrued over a long period during the second millennium AD.
This new information is consistent with the interpretation by Boremansen and Blom, who believe these to have been extracted from the looted cave grounds Boremanse, ; Petryshyn, Where did the mortal remains of those individuals, whom the local tradition still identify with the "caretakers of the Gods," come from?
Answers to this and other, related questions probably lie beneath the surface of the sanctuary under study. Maybe the dead had been buried there, their segments to be removed and exposed gradually over the centuries, to be extracted from the ground and venerated by distant descent groups up to the present.
Interestingly, and contrary to what we might expect, given the modern androcentric rhetoric on these human remains, those who in life were women perform equal caretaking functions as the males, an aspect that also speaks in favor of more general original uses of the shrines as mortuary repositories.
Naturally, the lack of children among the cohort also leaves questions open in regard to selection criteria. A further aspect concerns group identity and provenience.
At present, the lack of isotopic information renders speculative any attempt at assessing the place of origin of the individuals whose remains formed part of the shrines. The recent dating of only two samples from Sak Tat allows us to start placing the shrines into chronological context; however, further information will be necessary to understand their overall evolution as sacred places of worship and ritual activity areas.
It is important to underscore that the skeletal assemblages have been and continue being handled and reorganized during ceremonies although ritual uses have dramatically diminished during the last few generationsas part of regular maintenance processes, and as consequence of acts of vandalism perpetrated by rival non-Lacandon communities, as described in detail elsewhere Cucina and Tiesler, The direct dates and artifactual associations head shapes, ceramic wares, metal uses, etc.
Unfortunately, the relative paucity of the sample, the lack of a precise chronological dating, and the secondary organization of the bones, serves to limit the possibilities of expanding the information towards a population interpretation at the present time. As pointed out above, the local Lacandons believe that the caves and rock-shelters that are nested in the tall cliffs at the lake are homes of the gods Boremanse, ; McGee, There is a distinct feeling among the community members that the bones are the mortal remains of gods or humans that were left as they passed into the homes of the gods.
It is vaguely recalled that, in the olden times, men transferred skulls and bones at the shrines from ancient burials. Likewise, used or "dead" incense burners have been left at the shrines, where ceremonies have been held to help cure sick relatives and obtain abundant harvests. The placement of human bones at this shrine and others in the region therefore acquires a new sense: Additional excavations and surveys of caves, rock-shelters, and sites around the lagoon will surely provide insights regarding demographic profiles, lifeways, ritual, and health in a Maya population dating from Postclassic to historic times.
In this regard, we also hope that past, poorly understood burial patterns in Maya civilization will be illuminated by this project. Our grateful recognition goes to our colleagues Gabrielle Vail and to Marianne Gabriel for their initiative to organize a timely panel on Maya ritual behavior that inspired this contribution, as well as for their continuous support during the editorial process.
Here we wish to thank Julio Chi Keb and Shintaro Suzuki, who accompanied us during the reconnaissance fieldwork conducted in References Adams, Bradley J. Determining the number of individuals represented by commingled human remains", Recovery, analysis, and identification of commingled human remains, pp. University of Oklahoma Press.
The Crossroad Publishing Company. University of Albany, Institute for Mesoamerican Studies. Arkansas Archaeological Survey Research Series, Kennedy and Cynthia A. Cisneros "Technical note: Turner II and Betsy Lozoff.
University of Texas Press. The morphological variations along time showed an increase of eye size, an elongation of premaxilla and lower jaw, and an upward and forward movement of the isthmus. Discussion Hatching is not a fixed threshold, but is triggered by environmental cues at different times during the embryonic period, thus even sibling individuals can hatch at very different stages of development Yamagami, ; Balon, Our results showed that morphological variation at hatching in O.
In the fish's dorsal view, it became apparent that earlier hatched O. The effect of parental couples seems to be less conspicuous than AH. Probably, the size of the yolk sac and the bending of the embryo after hatching will be major factors operating on the beginning of exogenous feeding Battini et al.
Regarding juvenile feeding, morphological variation increased when, in addition to just captured wild individuals, those subjected to controlled feeding were considered.
In all comparisons, the slenderness of the head, size of premaxilla and jaw, and position of the eyes showed appreciable variation in the RW1. Both individuals fed only with zooplankton and those fed only with Tubifex sp. Furthermore, shapes obtained throughout feeding with Tubifex sp.
Shape variation has been also induced by controlled diet in other fishes. In the same way, another native Patagonian fish, Percichthys trucha Valenciennesshowed juveniles fed with zooplankton as having slenderer head and body, and longer jaw than individuals fed with Tubifex sp.
Patagonian lakes show a wide range of photic habitats Lattuca et al. Although an overview of the diet of O. This succession of more or less stenophagous ontogenetic periods could be imposing precise requirements for the oropharyngeal apparatus of the fish.
In conclusion, temperature and hatching timing could act on the head shape during the early life of O. Later on, juvenile feeding adds another variable to head shape variation. Plastic induction of head shape of O. In this context, our results could contribute to the comprehension of the plastic component of the morphological variation of the species.
Acknowledgements We would like to acknowledge the following institutions for granting the present project: This work would not have been possible without the cooperation of Centro de Salmonicultura Bariloche, Universidad Nacional del Comahue. Literature Cited Adams, D. Italian Journal of Zoology, Alternative ways to become a juvenile or a definitive phenotype and on some persisting linguistic offenses.
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