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Neves, Guilherme Pereira das Neves, Donald Ramos, John Russell-Wood, Barbara Sommer, xii go-betweens and the colonization of brazil James Wadsworth, and many others were kind enough to listen to my papers and to suggest directions for this work.

In addition to the Lisbon colloquia, I am grateful to many colleagues in Latin American and Brazilian history who organized sessions at professional meetings that provided me with a forum to develop the ideas expressed in this book. My research into the Santidade de Jaguaripe religious movement appeared as part of an AHR Forum on the Millennium in the American Historical Review in ; I am most grateful to the anonymous reviewers for their comments.

Very early in my research Robert Rowland allowed me to consult the unpublished Gulbenkian Inquisition Database of the sixteenth-century trials of the Lisbon Inquisition, which gave this project life.

Ronaldo Vainfas has also been a most generous colleague who has helped me to understand the Santidade de Jaguaripe millenarian movement.

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Sandra Lauderdale and Richard Graham copied a crucial letter for me from the Biblioteca Nacional in Rio de Janeiro when it was impossible for me to travel there. Stuart Schwartz steered me to the Monumenta Brasiliae collection of Jesuit letters early in my research and invited me to present a preliminary version of my go-between typology at a conference in memory of Charles Boxer at Yale University.

At Trinity University I am fortunate to have the wisdom of extraordinary colleagues in many fields who have given me insights, directions, and ideas to explore.

Eve Duffy encouraged me to think more systematically about go-betweens and empire, and my colleague at St. Students, particularly at Trinity University, have also helped me work through the ideas that underlie this book.

I taught two first-year seminars to Trinity students on the topic of go-betweens in literature; these discussions were a fascinating foray into characters who played roles as cultural brokers, intermediaries, and translators. I thank my colleague Thomas Sebastian for suggesting novels that feature go-betweens, many of which I read with my students.

Over the past year, students in my classes have read chapters of the book, and their comments have been very helpful. Graduate students at the University of Texas at Austin invited me to present a preliminary version of this book in the fall of ; their comments in particular helped me to conceptualize the fifth chapter, in which I explore go-betweens and biology.

The Newberry Library in Chicago provided a jump start for my discussion of mapmaking in the first chapter. I thank all the libraries and museums that granted me permission to reproduce the images that appear throughout the book.

This full year away from teaching allowed me to conceptualize this book in its present form. The chair of the History Department at Trinity University, John Martin, as well as former chairs Char Miller, Gary Kates, Allan Kownslar, and Terry Smart, facilitated many requests for travel and research expenses, and the Associate Vice President for Academic Affairs, Fred Loxsom, generously agreed to underwrite the permissions and photography for the illustrations.

David Stinchcomb advised me as I drew the maps. In the History Department, I thank Eunice Herrington for her assistance with travel, reimbursements, and scanning, and Rosa Salinas for photocopying, entering data, and keeping track of interlibrary loans. I am especially grateful to my two anonymous outside readers, whose careful and painstaking reads of the first draft of this book allowed me to correct errors and to develop my ideas more fully. Sometime in the writing of this book, I realized that my fascination with gobetweens emerges from my own childhood, when, as the daughter of a naval officer, I was uprooted and moved every two to three years.

In particular, our life in Lima, Peru, in the late s sparked my interest in Latin America. I thank my mother for making those years abroad rich with cultural experiences. I thank my father for introducing me to the world of sailing, the sea, and navigation.

“La Celestina”, la obra dramática más significativa del siglo XV

My sister and brothers shared with me the complexities of living in and moving between cultures. It is a special pleasure to thank Daniel Rigney, who provided many sociological insights to this dyed-in-the-wool historian. It is to Dan, my companion in marriage, and to our two sons, Matthew and Benjamin, that this book is affectionately dedicated. He agreed that his people would live on an island in the Bay of All Saints, where the Jesuits would teach them Christianity.

Jarric writes that a joyous procession was held in the capital to celebrate the peace. Because of her language, her mobility, and her understanding of two opposing cultures, this woman became the go-between who made pos- 2 go-betweens and the colonization of brazil sible peaceful encounters between two previously hostile groups. Her agency had enormous and far-reaching significance. But she was hardly unique.

During the previous century, hundreds of similar encounters had already taken place, and certain ways of interaction between the Indian and the Portuguese worlds had already taken root in Brazil. She was part of a much larger process wherein go-betweens typically were present at meetings between Indian and Portuguese peoples.

Many more go-betweens would facilitate future encounters in the succeeding centuries. It has often been assumed that the contact between Europe and America was a dyadic relationship between two very different cultural groups, Europeans and Native Americans. Certainly, conceptualizing the Portuguese and Indian worlds as a dyadic relationship is key to understanding the conflict between two very different ways of life that competed for Brazil after But go-betweens, as third parties, influenced the relationship that emerged in fundamental ways.

Go-betweens influenced the power dynamics at play in the relations between the Indian and European worlds. As a rule, they tend to become what Simmel calls arbitrators. In an encounter, the side that possesses the loyalty, or pays for and retains the allegiance, of the go-between gains an important advantage.

There is a further dimension of go-betweens 3 power, however. Go-betweens may exploit their positions for their own benefit. Simmel labels this position the tertius gaudens the third who rejoices. In fiction, go-betweens are individuals of in-between social status who are mobile, able to function in very different worlds, frequently fluent in several languages, sometimes dabblers in magic, and oftentimes involved in intense, sexually charged situations.

Not surprisingly, go-betweens in fiction frequently encounter tragedy. Celestina, the wily matchmaker in the Spanish novel La Celestina, pays the price of death for facilitating love, and Leo, the young carrier of messages in L. The go-between as agent of empire also emerges in J. Go-betweens link groups or individuals who cannot communicate with each other, but the facilitation of that communication and contact inevitably leads to death, destruction, or madness.

Nearly all of these novels are set in recognizable historical periods that were times of conflict, contact, and change. Historians, too, have been fascinated by the go-betweens they have found in sources from the past.

Some go-betweens have achieved near-mythical status in national and regional histories. Sacagawea also spelled Sacajaweaa Shoshone woman who lived two hundred years later, is another individual go-between whose role as interpreter and guide is celebrated because she enabled Lewis and 4 go-betweens and the colonization of brazil Clark to explore the American Northwest.

She is drawn in the center, listening to the words of go-betweens 5 Figure 1. Biblioteca Medicea Laurenziana, Florence. Her feet are bare and her hands are folded across her stomach.

She wears a woven huipil tunic and skirt. She is shown looking directly at Moctezuma, whose right hand is raised with the index finger pointing. Guaman Poma places the interpreter in an intermediate space between Atahualpa and the conquistadors Diego de Almagro who was not actually presentFrancisco Pizarro, and the Franciscan priest, Fray Vicente.

Atahualpa occupies the center and dominates the privileged upper position. Also in the upper position, to his right and left, are the Inca lords.

Below him are the Spaniards. Each of the conquistadors is so labeled, as is the interpreter: The interpreter, Felipe, occupies an intermediate space between the Indian and the Spanish worlds. It is not my intent to read the image as a photograph of the meeting or to argue that it reflects exactly what transpired, but simply to note that it includes the presence of a third party, the interpreter.

Unlike the highly symbolic meetings at Cajamarca or at Tenochtitlan, most contacts between Europeans and Native Americans typically took place repeatedly over long periods of time, not only in frontier zones but in the daily encounters between Indians and European colonists. Modern historians of the go-betweens 7 Figure 1.

An interpreter standing on right translates for Atahualpa center and Pizarro kneeling on left at Cajamarca. The Royal Library, Copenhagen.

Digitized version online at: Americas now recognize whole classes of intermediaries. Nancy Hagedorn, for example, identifies more than one hundred interpreters who served in the British territories north of Virginia between and These men and women were skilled translators and cultural brokers who were central to the formal diplomatic meetings between the Iroquois and British government officials. Amado argues that Portugal, a small, 8 go-betweens and the colonization of brazil lightly populated Christian kingdom, could only achieve its ambitious overseas objectives by obsessively collecting information through all possible means.

The Portuguese Crown therefore encouraged the creation of translators and intermediaries by sending condemned prisoners to live in exile in Africa, Asia, and Brazil. In Spanish America, mestizos, who inhabited the space between the Spanish and the Indian worlds, are frequently portrayed as important intermediaries. Their mobility, their ability to conduct themselves in two languages, and their skill at translating one symbolic universe to another were unique.

Daniel Richter argues that Indian war captives, who were adopted into the Five Nation Iroquois villages in the seventeenth century, shaped the reception later received by Jesuit missionaries.

Who became go-betweens and who was served by the go-betweens were not inconsequential factors, and they often determined the outcome of meetings, encounters, negotiations, and conversations. As American historian James go-betweens 9 Merrell emphasizes, go-betweens were perceived as fundamental to the negotiations between colonial officials and Indians, even if historians have not always perceived their importance. At the most basic level is the physical go-between.

The men, women, and children who crossed the Atlantic Ocean, thereby linking not only Europe and America, but Europe and Africa, and Africa and America, were all physical go-betweens. Biological go-betweens carried disease, introduced European domestic animals, and transplanted American flora and fauna to Europe and Africa. European sailors, sea captains, crews, colonists, and passengers all were physical and biological go-betweens, as were the Africans who traversed the Atlantic as slaves and the Indians who traveled to Europe as slaves, free servants, and exotic people from a new world.

Transactional go-betweens were translators, negotiators, and cultural brokers. Transactional go-betweens possessed complex and shifting loyalties that are difficult for modern historians to reconstruct. Guaman Poma, for example, served as a transactional go-between in Peru following the conquest because of his fluency in Spanish and Quechua; he worked as an interpreter and an informer for Spanish colonial officials.

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Some of the most interesting of the transactional go-betweens were Indian women, but most still remain invisible in the written historical record. Europeans as well as Indians perceived the power of the transactional gobetween. Many indigenous groups sought and acquired their own transactional gobetweens. Whereas Greenblatt would see all gobetweens as representational, I draw a distinction between them that is largely based on power and influence.

I term representational go-betweens those who, through writings, drawings, mapmaking, and the oral tradition, shaped on a large scale how Europeans and Native Americans viewed each other.

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Representational go-betweens were the cartographers, letter writers, and chroniclers—most but not all of whom were European.