Judgment at Nuremberg () - IMDb
The Trial of the Major War Criminals at Nuremberg in , a spectacular media event The second phase, after that date, was the concentration of all the Jews, See also idem, “Le proces de Nuremberg,” L'Histoire, No. Online Store. Judgment at Nuremberg is a American courtroom drama film directed by Stanley Kramer, Release date. December 14 .. The Internet Movie Database. N.B.: IMT = International Military Tribunal (premier Procès de Nuremberg en 4 .. bien qu'il soit connu qu'Hitler n'a prononcé qu'un discours à cette date. Il y a 4.
Only remnants of the Jewish population remain. German, Austrian and Czechoslovak Jews, churchmen, Social Democrats, Communists and liberals, shared this concern, and their spokesmen pleaded with Allied authorities to have their sufferings acknowledged in the quest for justice.
Taking up their case inthe American delegate to the United Nations War Crimes Commission, Herbert Pell, sought retribution for wartime atrocities committed against people on religious or racial grounds.
These barbarities were understood to be integral to Nazism and thus might have been sanctioned by German law at the time.
Thereby, it found a place in Article 6 of the Nuremberg Charter and the indictment.
Fashioned into the language of the charter, and with the punctuation corrected by a special Protocol on October 6 to underscore the point, Article 6 c read as follows: Before the London Conference, some Jewish groups requested such involvement in the trial as part of their briefing of the chief American prosecutor.
Jackson originally advised against the idea, but seems to have changed his mind during the summer ofprobably as a result of conversations with Professor Lauterpacht. Weizmann, it was hoped, would prepare a 15,word statement and would address the tribunal for about three hours. Ultimately, the idea was dropped.
Weizmann, too, was uncertain about the wisdom of an appearance, as emerged at a meeting with Zionist leaders in London on September He wanted to bring to bear additional research and sought to put off an appearance before the tribunal. In general, the Zionist leader seems to have been unconvinced about the value of such testimony and lacked confidence in his ability to speak to the issue.
It is my purpose to show a plan and design to which all Nazis were fanatically committed, to annihilate all Jewish people. Antisemitism was promoted to divide and embitter the democratic peoples and to soften their resistance to the Nazi aggression.
It was all there, and Jackson finished his introduction by accenting the place of anti-Jewish persecutions in the American case: Determination to destroy the Jews was a binding force which at all times cemented the elements of this conspiracy. On many internal policies there were differences among the defendants.
But there is not one of them who has not echoed the rallying cry of Nazism: Although closely associated with the latter count in the indictment, the murder of European Jews was not separated from other crimes. In speeches before the tribunal and in frequent testimony, references to Jews intermingled with accounts of other victimization at the hands of the Nazis. In practice as in theory, crimes against humanity were constantly tangled in war crimes, and both in the indictment and throughout the trial there was little effort to distinguish between them.
To be sure, attorneys often alluded to crimes against humanity as a way of underscoring the particularly heinous character of Nazi criminality.
The crimes against humanity were not seldom war crimes, larger still. There was one exception to the respectful inclusion of the fate of European Jewry. Scattered references to Gypsies also appeared, one should add, but these were very few and reflected little understanding, at the time, of Nazi policies toward the Sinti and Roma people. At times, interpretations seemed to be shaped by the contours of the legal argument rather than the reverse.
Doctors' trial - Wikipedia
Telford Taylor, a U. Both the Americans and the British set the murder of European Jews in what is to us familiar historical perspective-referring to six million killed seemingly rounded off from 5. There was a forthright acknowledgment of the historic importance of the catastrophe. Jackson, in his summary, had this to say: There is one group to which the method of annihilation was applied on a scale so immense that it is my duty to refer separately to the evidence.
I mean the extermination of the Jews. If there were no other crime against these men, this one alone, in which all of them were implicated, would suffice.
- The Holocaust at Nuremberg
- Doctors' trial
History holds no parallel to these horrors. This strategy on the whole robbed the American presentation of drama and intensity, although there were exceptions in particularly horrifying instances, some of which focused attention on Jews.
Presented by American prosecutor Major William Walsh, and followed by photographs projected on a screen for a darkened courtroom, this was almost certainly the most extensive publicity the world had yet received for the Jewish revolt. They reported a range of reactions, from contrition Walter Funk: Field Marshal Wilhelm Keitel, Gilbert reported, Was eating, having just returned from a conference with his defense attorney.
He appeared to have forgotten the film until we mentioned it. The case has been proved over and over again. Neither does the world need it any more, for all over the world the evidence has been published. But it seems impossible to stop it, or to check the volume of it. Here the United States prosecutors called a very important witness later convicted in a subsequent Nuremberg trial and executed in SS general Otto Ohlendorf was thirty-eight years old inand a commander during the Barbarossa campaign of one of the most important murder units-Einsatzgruppe D, operating in the southern Ukraine during the summer and autumn of How many men were in the unit, Amen asked.
AboutOhlendorf indicated. He was examined by American prosecutor Colonel Telford Taylor. He had served with the latter in the Jewish branch of the Reichssicherheitshauptamt, the huge SS police apparatus. The second phase, after that date, was the concentration of all the Jews, in Poland and in other territories occupied by Germany in the East, in ghettos.
This period lasted approximately until the beginning of Eichmann told me he could show me this order in writing if it would soothe my conscience. He took a small volume of orders from his safe, turned over the pages, and showed me a letter from Himmler to the Chief of the Security Police and the SD. The gist of the letter was roughly as follows: All Jewish men and women who were able to work were to be temporarily exempted from the so-called Final Solution and used for work in the concentration camps.
To whom was the order addressed? Was there any other addressee on this order? Yes, the Inspector of Concentration Camps. The order was addressed to both of these offices. Smirnov called Abram Suzkever, a Jewish writer from Vilna. Prompted by Smirnov, Suzkever recounted the terrorization and massacre of one of the leading Jewish communities of Eastern Europe: You witnessed the persecution of Jews in that city?
I would like you to tell the Court about this. When the Germans seized my city, Vilna, about 80, Jews lived in the town. From there hardly one returned. When the Jews found out their kin were not coming back, a large part of the population went into hiding.
However, the Germans tracked them with police dogs. I have to say that the Germans declared that they were exterminating the Jewish race as though legally. On 8 July an order was issued which stated that all Jews should wear a patch on their back; afterwards they were ordered to wear it on their chest But two days later some other commandant named Neumann issued a new order that they should not wear these patches but must wear the yellow Star of David.
And what does this yellow Star of David mean?NUREMBERG - THE VERDICTS - (Nuremberg Trial)
It was a six-pointed patch worn on the chest and on the back, in order to distinguish the Jews from the other inhabitants of the town. On another day they were ordered to wear a blue band with a white star. The Jews did not know which insignia to wear as very few lived in the town. Those who did not wear this sign were immediately arrested and were never seen again.
After a long, harrowing account, Smirnov asked for statistics: Please, Witness, I am interested in the following question: You said that at the beginning of the German occupation 80, Jews lived in Vilna. How many remained after the German occupation? After the German occupation about Jews remained in Vilna. Thus, 79, persons were exterminated? Your Honors, I have no further questions to ask of the witness.
Particularly, they did not explain why Jews had been singled out by the Nazis. Mass murder, in their conception, was in the service of conquest.
NON COUPABLE AU PROCES DE NUREMBERG
He alone among the defendants was charged only with this count and the conspiracy charge. Indeed, so unsavory did Streicher turn out to be notwithstanding valiant testimony on his behalf by his wifethat it seemed difficult for some to associate him with the planning for the elimination of the Jews that yoked statesmen and technocrats, military and civilians, Germans and other nationalities in a huge, European-wide program of great scope and complexity.
Streicher did not deny his antisemitism, of course. All he did was to insist that he was not a murderer, which seemed plausible enough, and, more dubiously, that he had not incited others to murder.
He was the dominant personality among the defendants; some would say of the entire trial. Which was it to be? Was it possible to let such atrocities go unpunished?
It will be remembered that after the First World War alleged criminals were handed over to be tried by Germanyand what a farce that was! The majority got off and such sentences as were inflicted were derisory and were soon remitted. At the beginning ofthe Polish government-in-exile asked the British and French governments to condemn the German invasion of their country.
The British initially declined to do so; however, in Aprila joint declaration was issued by the British, French and Polish. Relatively bland because of Anglo-French reservations, it proclaimed the trio's "desire to make a formal and public protest to the conscience of the world against the action of the German government whom they must hold responsible for these crimes which cannot remain unpunished.
On 1 Novemberthe Soviet Union, the United Kingdom and the United States published their "Declaration on German Atrocities in Occupied Europe"which gave a "full warning" that, when the Nazis were defeated, the Allies would "pursue them to the uttermost ends of the earth The above declaration is without prejudice to the case of the major war criminals whose offences have no particular geographical location and who will be punished by a joint decision of the Government of the Allies.
The British Prime MinisterWinston Churchillhad then advocated a policy of summary execution in some circumstances, with the use of an Act of Attainder to circumvent legal obstacles, being dissuaded from this only by talks with US and Soviet leaders later in the war. In lateduring the Tripartite Dinner Meeting at the Tehran Conferencethe Soviet leader, Joseph Stalinproposed executing 50,—, German staff officers.
US President Franklin D. Roosevelt joked that perhaps 49, would do. Churchill, believing them to be serious, denounced the idea of "the cold blooded execution of soldiers who fought for their country" and that he would rather be "taken out in the courtyard and shot" himself than partake in any such action.
Churchill was vigorously opposed to executions "for political purposes. The plan advocated the forced de-industrialisation of Germany and the summary execution of so-called "arch-criminals", i. Later, details were leaked generating widespread condemnation by the nation's newspapers[ clarification needed ]. Roosevelt, aware of strong public disapproval, abandoned the plan, but did not adopt an alternative position on the matter.