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eTransparency Case Study: E-licitatie - Transparency of Romanian Public to post public information online and to provide complete online governmental However, the evidence unveiled to date - including the system's logs - shows many. Main · Videos; Who is duane lee chapman jr dating dating siobhan zetmer licitare online dating licitare online dating access tutorials relationships dating. Main · Videos; Dobieranie fryzury do twarzy online dating. Why overhaul we stridently subjugate to overhaul it above japan? I bade the relation one albeit the .
Their reply rates are already high enough that they can afford to take a hit. Which is better depends upon what your goals are.
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Do you know the secret to getting a date online? Take the scientific test to see if you can build the perfect dating profile Man's not hot The study showed that women tended to use more positive words when communicating with more desirable partners, whereas men tended to play it cool, showing a slight decrease in positive words.
Reinforcing a well-known stereotype, women's view of men's desirability peaked at around the age of 50, whereas women's attractiveness to men declined from the age of The authors stressed that this does not mean following these stereotypes is the key to successful dating.
People are able to make choices. There may be groups in which people who would not necessarily score as high by our measures could still have an awesome and fulfilling dating life.
Most messages ended in failure. Previous research has shown that when people are able to spend proper time together, their characters become far more important than the superficial information that they receive on a dating app.
Once you get past that first response, it is not clear how desirability continues to matter. Equal chances and a transparent environment for all players.
Easy access to critical business information in the public acquisition area. Stakeholders There are three central stakeholders involved in this project: The central government is the sponsor of the project, supervising the development and operation of the system through the Ministry of Communications and Information Technology.
The public agencies which use this system in order to find the best sources for their purchases. The private companies which place bids for public contracts. Romanian citizens are a distant stakeholder of this system, as the transparency and the financial-related benefits have an effect on the cost and execution of public services.
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In some countries, civil society organisations take an active role in monitoring procurement. This has not been the case with E-licitatie. Transparency International, for example, has focused its attention on more significant sources of corruption rather than E-licitatie's high volume of low-value transactions which would not be cost effective to monitor.
Transparency and the Poor The project does not address poor communities and individuals, but it does offer equal access for small suppliers at least, those with Internet accesswho would not otherwise be able to participate in such auctions. In addition to this, there were also implementation costs, both capital costs servers and infrastructure and operational ones installation, maintenance etc. These are more difficult to quantify effectively, but capital costs are likely to have been at least as great as those for the software.
The system brings some specific benefits to the process of procurement: It also reduces the costs of public sector purchases through the open auction process.
This has helped to create a situation of more equal and fair treatment of bidders, opening up the process to a greater number of firms - especially small firms - but also squeezing out opportunities for corrupt collusion between public servants and private vendors.
There is no objective evidence available about the actual impact on corruption. There has been no independent evaluation of the project. An internal evaluation commission drawn from MCIT, GICIT and the government's General Secretariat has monitored the system's transactions, savings and any disputes, and declared the system to be a success.
- Online dating: Aim high, keep it brief, and be patient
There is no evaluation in relation to transparency, accountability or corruption. Implementation proceeded smoothly, with a generally good reaction from users, especially the vendors. The system is quite simple to use, and there have been no major technical breakdowns. Public agencies did suffer something of an 'electronic shock', in having to change their procurement processes to the very precise requirements of E-licitatie.
However, this seems to have generally been handled well, and the system is currently being extended to cover a broader and more complex range of procurement, including services such as construction contracts. Late inMCIT requested a formal investigation of repeated claims from some public organisations that E-licitatie was not working as intended, and that there was a misallocation of contracts.
However, the evidence unveiled to date - including the system's logs - shows many of the claims to have been false or exaggerated.
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According to MCIT, any problems that have arisen seem to relate to the design of the procurement documentation and process by the initiating public agency rather than to any technical or functional flaw in the online system.
There are also suggestions that the accusations arose from corrupt procurement officials seeking to undermine the automated system. These were essential for this e-transparency project, as public institutions and their employees are highly reluctant to accept change. A public relations campaign raised the profile of and created a positive image for the system, thus increasing the pressure on public institutions to adopt it.
However, at root of the system's success was high-level internal political support, driven partly by the demands of external political agencies. Such support is particularly valuable in transitional economies, which are used to a culture of strong leadership and top-down command. The project came at a time when the concept of e-government was ripe for Romania and the participants in the system were those with the highest Internet penetration rate in the country: External demands for transparency.
In addition to the demands imposed by prospective membership of the EU and NATO, there were also demands from within Romania itself - from businesses and from the citizenry at large - for public procurement processes to become more transparent, and for action to be taken on corruption. This created a general atmosphere of expectation that helped facilitate the rapid and successful implementation of the project.
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The most important challenge for this e-transparency system was acceptance by staff within the public institutions involved, due to inertia and corruption. Besides the strong political and societal commitment to make the system succeed, laws were enacted in order to help ensure compliance.
Lack of ICT skills. Lack of computer skills among the public servants involved was and still is something of a challenge for effective use of the system. National training programmes have been designed to help try to resolve this problem. There is no evidence yet of this e-transparency system being used to facilitate corruption.
However, this does remain an ongoing challenge given the physical elements of procurement that have been removed by E-licitatie: There are good safeguards in place: