Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant - Wikipedia
Iran also called Persia and officially known as the Islamic Republic of Iran ( Persian: جمهوری . The emergence of Susa as a city, as determined by radiocarbon dating, . After two centuries of Arab rule, semi-independent and independent Iranian In , the country spent $15 billion on arms, while the states of the Gulf. Latest news and breaking stories on Islamic State, the radical Islamist group which has seized Baghdad's Green Zone reopens 15 years after US invasion. Islamic State (IS) is a radical Sunni Islamist militant group that has seized God's rule on Earth and to defend the Muslim community, or umma.
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Consequently, Akbar was forced even more than the Ottomans to confront and address the issue of religious plurality. The option of aggressive conversion was virtually impossible in such a vast area, as was any version of the Ottoman millet system in a setting in which hundreds if not thousands of millets could be defined. In some ways, Akbar faced in exaggerated form the situation that the Arab Muslims faced when they were a minority in the Nile-to-Oxus region in the 7th—9th centuries.
Instead of institutionalizing intolerance of non-Muslim influences and instead of hardening communal lines, Akbar banned intolerance and even the special tax on non-Muslims.Caught on camera: Life under IS rule in Raqqa - Syria
Akbar combined toleration for all religions with condemnation of practices that seemed to him humanly objectionable, such as enslavement and the immolation of widows. The mingling of Hindu and Muslim traditions was expressed in all the arts, especially in naturalistic and sensuous painting; extremely refined and sophisticated design in ceramics, inlay work, and textiles; and in delicate yet monumental architecture. With the accession of Aurangzeb ruled —the tradition of ardent ecumenicism, which would reemerge several centuries later in a non-Muslim named Mohandas K.
Between the 15th and the 18th century the use of coffee, tea, and tobacco, despite the objections of the ulama, became common in all three empires. Teahouses became important new centres for male socializing, in addition to the home, the mosque, the marketplace, and the public bath.
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Female socializing was restricted largely to the home and the bath. In the teahouses men could practice the already well-developed art of storytelling and take delight in the clever use of language.
They all recounted to him tales of the miracles and the sayings of the founders and great teachers, all long dead, of their schools. The Portuguese were riding the momentum generated by their own seaborne expansion as well as by the fulfillment of the Reconquista and the establishment of an aggressively intolerant Christian regime in the centre of the Iberian Peninsula.
Meanwhile, the greatest Muslim kingdom of the Sudan, Songhaiwas expanding northward, and its growing control of major trade routes into Morocco provoked Moroccan interference. Invaded inSonghai was ruled as a Moroccan vassal for 40 years, during which time Morocco itself was experiencing political confusion and instability.
They also recognized the limits of their authority as absolute monarchs, dividing their realm into the area of authority and the area of no authority where many of the Amazigh tribes lived. Thus, the Moroccan sharifs solved the universal problems of legitimacy, loyalty, and control in a way tailored to their own situation. Islam had come to these areas along trade and pilgrimage routes, especially through the efforts of a number of learned teaching-trading families such as the Kunta.
By the 16th century the Muslim states of the Sudanic belt were in contact not only with the major Muslim centres of the Maghrib and Egypt but also with each other through an emerging trans-Sudanic pilgrimage route. Furthermore, Islam had by then become well enough established to provoke efforts at purification comparable to the Almoravid movement of the 11th century. Other efforts to improve the observance of Islam were more militant.
The 10th century ah began in ce. Farther to the east, a conquest of Christian Nubia by Arab tribes of Upper Egypt resulted in the conversion of the pagan Funj to Islam and the creation of a major Muslim kingdom there.
Although most indigenous West African scholars looked to foreigners for inspiration, a few began to chart their own course. By the end of the period of consolidation and expansion, Muslims in the Sudanic belt were being steadily influenced by North African Islam but were also developing distinctive traditions of their own.
Several similarities are clear: There were differences too: Indian Ocean Muslims had to cope with the Portuguese threat and to face Hindus and Buddhists more than pagans, so that Islam had to struggle against sophisticated and refined religious traditions that possessed written literature and considerable political power.
The first major Muslim state in Southeast Asia, Acehwas established around in northern and western Sumatra in response to more than a decade of Portuguese advance. Most of the era of the Sasanian Empire was overshadowed by the Roman—Persian Warswhich raged on the western borders at Anatolia, the Western CaucasusMesopotamia, and the Levantfor over years.
These wars exhausted both the Romans and the Sasanians and led to the defeat of both by the Muslim invasion. Throughout the Achaemenid, Parthian, and Sasanian eras, several offshoots of the Iranian dynasties established eponymous branches in Anatolia and the Caucasus, including the Pontic Kingdomthe Mihranidsand the Arsacid dynasties of ArmeniaIberia Georgiaand Caucasian Albania present-day Republic of Azerbaijan and southern Dagestan.
Medieval period Main articles: Muslim conquest of Persia and Medieval Iran The prolonged Byzantine—Sasanian warsmost importantly the climactic war of —as well as the social conflict within the Sasanian Empireopened the way for an Arab invasion of Iran in the seventh century.
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Meanwhile, the prolonged and gradual process of Islamization was followed, which targeted Iran's then Zoroastrian majority and included religious persecution,    demolition of libraries  and fire temples,  a special tax penalty " jizya "  and language shift. IRTPA provides that an FTO may file a petition for revocation 2 years after its designation date or in the case of redesignated FTOs, its most recent redesignation date or 2 years after the determination date on its most recent petition for revocation.
In order to provide a basis for revocation, the petitioning FTO must provide evidence that the circumstances forming the basis for the designation are sufficiently different as to warrant revocation. If no such review has been conducted during a 5 year period with respect to a designation, then the Secretary of State is required to review the designation to determine whether revocation would be appropriate. In addition, the Secretary of State may at any time revoke a designation upon a finding that the circumstances forming the basis for the designation have changed in such a manner as to warrant revocation, or that the national security of the United States warrants a revocation.
The same procedural requirements apply to revocations made by the Secretary of State as apply to designations. A designation may be revoked by an Act of Congress, or set aside by a Court order.
Legal Ramifications of Designation It is unlawful for a person in the United States or subject to the jurisdiction of the United States to knowingly provide "material support or resources" to a designated FTO.